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ly (Robot fornimung: es,da,no,ca,sv,ru,simple,ar,he,bg,nds (strongly connected to ang:Nīƿeoforƿīcburg),pt,fi,uk,it,ja,la,zh,nl,eo,id (strongly connected to ang:Nīwe Eoforwic))
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#REDIRECT: [[Nīwe Eoforwīc]]
:''This ȝeƿrit is ymbe Ȝ.R. rīċum Nīƿes Eoforƿīċes. For other uses see [[Nīƿe Eoforƿīc (disambiguation)]].''
{{US state |
Name = Nīƿe Eoforƿīċ |
Fullname = Rīċe Nīƿes Eoforƿīċes |
Flag = New York state flag.png |
Seal = |
Map = Map of USA highlighting New York.png |
Nickname = Empire State |
Capital = [[Albany, New York|Albany]] |
LargestCity = [[Nīƿe Eoforƿīc Burg|Nīƿe Eoforƿīċ]] |
Governor = [[George Pataki]] |
PostalAbbreviation = NY |
OfficialLang = ''Nān'' |
AreaRank = 27<sup>ða</sup> |
TotalArea = 141,205 |
LandArea = 122,409 |
WaterArea = 18,795 |
PCWater = 13.3 |
PopRank = 3<sup>da</sup> |
2000Pop = 18,976,457 |
2003Pop = 19,190,115 |
DensityRank = 6<sup>ta</sup> |
2000Density = 155.18 |
AdmittanceOrder = 11<sup>ða</sup> |
AdmittanceDate = [[26 Mǣdmōnaþ]], [[1788]] |
TimeZone = [[Eastern Standard Time Zone|Eastern]]: [[UTC]]-5/[[Daylight saving time|-4]] |
Latitude = 40°29'40"N to 45°0'42"N |
Longitude = 71°47'25"W to 79°45'54"W |
Width = 455 |
Length = 530 |
HighestElev = 1,629 |
MeanElev = 305 |
LowestElev = 0 |
ISOCode = US-NY |
Website =
'''Nīƿe Eoforƿīċ''' is [[rīce|rīċe]] in þǣm norþēasternum [[Geānlǣht Rīcu American|Ȝeānlǣhtan Rīċum American]] hƿæs Ȝ.R. postal scortnes is '''NY'''. It is sometimes called '''Nīƿes Eoforƿīċes Rīċe''' when there is need to sunder it from [[Nīƿe Eoforƿīc Burg|Nīƿe Eoforƿīċ Burg]].
== Stǣr ==
Sēo: ''[[Stǣr Nīƿe Eoforƿīcan]]''
Nīƿe Eoforƿīċ was one of the [[13 colonies|thirteen colonies]] that revolted against British rule in the [[American Revolution]].
== Law and government ==
As in all fifty states, the head of the [[executive branch]] of government is a [[Governor of New York|Governor]]. The [[legislative branch]] is called the [[New York Legislature|'''Legislature''']] and consists of a [[New York State Assembly|Senate]] and an [[New York State Assembly|Assembly]]. Unlike most States, the New York electoral law permits [[electoral fusion]], and New York ballots tend to have, in consequence, a larger number of [[political party|parties]] on them, some being permanent minor parties that seek to influence the major parties and others being ephemeral parties formed to give major-party candidates an additional line on the ballot.
New York's legislature is notoriously dysfunctional. The Assembly has long been controlled by the Democrats, the Senate has long been controlled by the Republicans. No budget has been passed on time for twenty years, and for many years the legislature was unable to pass legislation for which there was supposed to be a consensus, such as reforming the so-called [[Rockefeller drug laws]].
In 2002, 16,892 laws were introduced in the New York legislature, more than twice as many as in the Illinois General Assembly, whose members are the second most prolific. Of those bills, only 4 percent, 693, actually became law, the lowest passing percentage in the country.
New York's legislature also has more paid staff, 3,428 than any other legislature in the nation. Pennsylvania, whose staff is the second largest, only had 2,947, and California only 2,359. New York's legislature also has more committees than any other legislature in the nation.
New York's subordinate political units are its 62 [[county|counties]]. Other officially incorporated governmental units are [[Political_subdivisions_of_New_York_State#Town|towns]], [[Political_subdivisions_of_New_York_State#City|cities]], and [[Political_subdivisions_of_New_York_State#Village|villages]].
For decades it has been the established practice for Albany to pass legislation for some meritorious project, but then mandate county and municipal government to actually pay for it. New York State has its counties pay a higher percentage of welfare costs than any other state and New York State is the only state which requires counties to pay a portion of [[Medicaid]].
The court system in New York is notable for its "backwards" naming: the state's [[trial court]] is called the [[New York Supreme Court]], while the highest court in the state is the [[New York Court of Appeals]].
* ''See: [[List of New York Governors]]''
* ''See: [[Political subdivisions of New York State]]''
* ''See: [[List of New York counties]]''
* ''See: [[List of cities in New York]]''
* ''See: [[List of towns in New York]]''
* ''See: [[List of villages in New York]]''
* ''See: [[List of census-designated places in New York]]''
* ''See: [[List of political parties in New York]]''
* ''See: [[Politics of New York]]''
== Geography ==
New York State's borders touch (clockwise from the northwest) two [[Great Lakes]] ([[Lake Erie|Erie]] and [[Lake Ontario|Ontario]], which are connected by the [[Niagara River]]), the provinces of [[Ontario]] and [[Quebec]] in [[Canada]], three [[New England]] states ([[Vermont]], [[Massachusetts]], and [[Connecticut]]), the [[Atlantic Ocean]], and two [[Mid-Atlantic]] states ([[New Jersey]] and [[Pennsylvania]]). In addition, [[Rhode Island]] shares a water border with New York.
New York is also the site of the only extra-territorial [[enclave]] within
the boundaries of the USA, the [[United Nations]] compound on Manhattan's
East River.
The southern tip of New York State &ndash; New York City, its suburbs, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley &ndash; can be considered to form the central core of a "[[megalopolis]]", a super-city stretching from the northern suburbs of Boston to the southern suburbs of Washington and therefore occasionally called [[BosWash]]. First described by Jean Gottman in 1961 as a new phenomenon in the history of world urbanization, the megalopolis is characterized by a coalescence of previous already-large cities of the [[Eastern Seaboard]], a heavy specialization on tertiary activity related to government, trade, law, education, finance, publishing and control of economic activity, plus a growth pattern not so much of more population and more area as more intensive use of already existing urbanized area and ever more sophisticated links from one specialty to another. Several other groups of megalopolis-type super-cities exist in the world, but that centered around New York City was the first described and still is the best example.
The megalopolis, however, is not the only aspect of New York State. While best known for [[New York City]]'s urban atmosphere, especially [[Manhattan]]'s skyscrapers, by contrast the rest of the state is dominated by farms, forests, rivers, mountains, and lakes. Few people know that New York's [[Adirondack State Park]] is larger than any [[National Park]] in the US. [[Niagara Falls]], on the Niagara River as it flows from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario is a popular attraction; the best view is from the Canadian side. The [[Hudson River]] flows south through the eastern part of the state without draining Lakes [[Lake George (New York)|George]] or [[Lake Champlain|Champlain]]. Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the [[Richelieu River| Richelieu]] and then the [[St. Lawrence River|St Lawrence]] Rivers. Four of New York City's five boroughs are on the three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River [[Manhattan Island]], [[Staten Island, New York | Staten Island]], and [[Long Island, New York|Long Island]].
The five New York City boroughs (and their counties) are: [[The Bronx]] (Bronx) on the mainland north of Manhattan (New York) on Manhattan Island; the Hudson River is their western boundary. [[Brooklyn]] (Kings) and [[Queens]] (Queens) are across the [[East River]] from Manhattan on the western end of [[Long Island]] and [[Staten Island]] (Richmond) is south of Manhattan. The eastern end of Long Island includes suburban [[Nassau County, New York|Nassau]] and [[Suffolk County, New York|Suffolk]] Counties.
[[Upstate New York |"Upstate"]] is a common term for New York State north of the New York City metropolitan area; but many of those outside of the NYC metropolitan area find the term demeaning because it is emblematic of the cultural and demographic divide which separates the two areas, one rural and conservative, the other urban and liberal. Which of the suburban counties north of The Bronx along the Hudson River ([[Rockland County|Rockland]], [[Westchester County|Westchester]], and [[Putnam County|Putnam]]) count as "Upstate" depends on who is making the list. Upstate New York includes the [[Catskill Mountains|Catskill]] and [[Adirondack Mountains|Adirondack]] Mountains, the [[Shawangunk Ridge]], the [[Finger Lakes|Finger]] and [[Great Lakes|Great]] Lakes in the west and Lake Champlain, Lake George, and [[Oneida Lake]] in the northeast, and rivers such as the [[Delaware River|Delaware]], [[Genesee River|Genesee]], Hudson, [[Mohawk River|Mohawk]], and [[Susquehanna River|Susquehanna]]. The highest elevation in New York is [[Mount Marcy]] in the Adirondacks.
East of New York City extends the appropriately named "Long Island", stretching approximately 120 miles (190 km) from Brooklyn and Queens Counties (part of NY City) on the western end to Orient and Montauk Points in the rural "East End" of the Island. The two counties that you encounter as you travel east from NY City are Nassau and Suffolk. Three of Suffolk County's ten townships - Brookhaven, Riverhead, and Southampton - are host to the 102,500 acre (415 km&sup2;) State designated and protected Central Pine Barrens region. This remarkably undeveloped region overlies part of Long Island's federally designated Sole Source Aquifer which provides drinking water to nearly three million residents, and it contains terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of statewide and national significance, interconnected surface and ground waters, recreational areas, historic locales, farmlands, and residential communities. This region is the largest remnant of a forest thought to have once encompassed over a quarter million acres (1,000 km&sup2;) on Long Island following the last glacial advance some 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. Much of the region's ecosystem is similar to the larger New Jersey Pinelands (also called "pine barrens") to the south and southwest of NY City, along with Cape Cod's pine barrens. All three areas share geologic and ecological characteristics common along the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the U.S.
== Economy ==
New York City dominates the economy of the state. It is the leading center of [[banking]], [[finance]] and [[mass media|communication]] in the United States and is the location of the [[New York Stock Exchange]] (NYSE) on [[Wall Street]], Manhattan. In 1999, the total gross state product was $755 billion, second only to [[California]] in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $34,547, placing it 4<sup>th</sup> in the nation. New York's [[agriculture|agricultural]] outputs are [[dairy]] products, [[cattle]] and other [[livestock]], [[vegetable]]s, [[Nursery (horticulture)|nursery]] stock, and [[apples]]. Its industrial outputs are printing and [[publishing]], scientific instruments, electric equipment, machinery, [[chemical]] products, and [[tourism]].
New York is best known for its tertiary sector specializing in foreign trade, together with banking, port facilities, advertising, warehousing, and other activities needed to support large-scale commerce. In addition, many of the world's largest corporations locate their headquarters home offices in Manhattan or in nearby [[Westchester County, New York]]. The state also has a large manufacturing sector which includes printing, garments, furs, railroad rolling stock, and bus line vehicles. Some industries are concentrated in outstate locations also, such as ceramics (the southern tier of counties) and photographic equipment (Rochester).
There is a moderately large saltwater commercial fishery located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder. There used to be a large oyster fishery in New York waters as well, but at present, oysters comprise only a small portion of the total value of seafood harvested. Perhaps the best known aspect of the fishing sector is the famous Fulton Fish Market in New York City, which distributes not only the New York catch, but imported seafood from all over the world. The famous Fulton Fish Market has been moved to the Bronx.
New York's mining sector, which is larger than most people think, is concentrated in three areas. The first is near New York City. Primarily, this
area specializes in construction materials for the many projects in the city, but its also contains the emery mines of Westchester County, one of two locations in the USA where that mineral is extracted. The second area is the [[Adirondack Mountains]]. This is an area of very specialized products, including [[talc]], industrial garnets, and [[zinc]]. It should be noted that the Adirondacks are not part of the Appalachian system, despite their location, but are structurally part of the mineral-rich [[Canadian Shield]]. Finally in the inland southwestern part of the state in the Allegheny Plateau is a region of drilled wells. The only major liquid output at present is salt in the form of brine; however, there are also small to moderate petroleum reserves in this area.
== Agriculture ==
New York State is an agricultural leader, ranking within the top five states for a number of products including [[dairy]], [[apple]]s, [[cherries]], [[cabbage]], [[potatoes]], [[onion]]s, [[maple syrup]] and many other products. The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced 3.4 billion dollars in agricultural products in [[2001]]. The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of [[soil]]s and [[microclimate]] for many apple, cherry, [[plum]], [[pear]] and [[peach]] [[orchard]]s. Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. The south shore of Lake Erie and the southern [[Finger Lakes]] hillsides have many vineyards. The Finger Lakes area is famous for award-winning farm [[winery|wineries and others]]. Many of these wines are made with native American grapes, different in species from the European domesticate.
[[Image:Dairy4667.jpg|right|frame|Dairy farm near [[Oxford, New York]], July 2001]]
New York was heavily [[glacier|glaciated]] in the [[ice age]] leaving much of the state with deep, fertile, though somewhat rocky soils. Row crops, including [[hay]], [[maize|corn]] (''also known as maize''), [[wheat]], [[oats]], [[barley]], and [[soybean]]s, are grown. Particularly in the western part of the state, [[sweet corn]], [[peas]], [[carrots]], [[Squash (vegetable)|squash]], [[cucumbers]] and other [[vegetables]] are grown. The Hudson and Mohawk valleys are known for [[pumpkins]] and [[blueberries]]. The glaciers also left numerous swampy areas, which have been [[drainage|drained]] for the rich humus soils called [[muckland]] which is mostly used for onions, potatoes, [[celery]] and other vegetables. Dairy farms are present throughout much of the state. [[Cheese]] is a major product, often produced by [[Amish]] or [[Mennonite]] farm cheeseries. New York is rich in nectar-producing plants and is a major [[honey]]-producing state. The honeybees are also used for [[pollination]] of [[fruit]]s and [[vegetable]]s. Most commercial [[beekeeper]]s are [[migratory]], taking their [[beehive|hives]] to southern states for the [[winter]]. Most cities have [[Farmers' market]]s which are well supplied by local truck [[farming|farmers]].
== Demographics ==
According to the US Census Bureau, as of [[2003]], New York was the third largest state in population after [[California]] and [[Texas]], with a population of 19,190,115. 20.4% of the population is foreign-born.
The racial makeup of the state is:
*62.0% [[Whites|White]] Non-Hispanic
*15.9% [[African American|Black]]
*15.1% [[Hispanic American|Hispanic]]
*5.5% [[Asian American|Asian]]
*0.4% [[American Indian]]
*3.1% mixed race
The top 5 ancestry groups in New York are [[African American]] (15.9%), [[Italian-American|Italian]] (14.4%), [[Ireland|Irish]] (12.9%), [[German-American|German]] (11.2%), [[England|English]] (6%).
6.5% of New York's population were reported as under 5, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.8% of the population.
The Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan contains the shrine and burial place of Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini ( [[Mother Cabrini]]), the patron saint of immigrants and the first American citizen to be canonized. Immigration has given New York an unusually diverse composition of religious groups in which no one denomination has an overwhelming numerical superiority, as shown by the tables below:
*[[Christianity|Christian]] &#8211; 79%
**[[Roman Catholic]] &#8211; 44%
**[[Protestant]] &#8211; 34%
**Other Christian &#8211; 1%
*[[Judaism]] &#8211; 9%
*[[Islam]] &#8211; 2%
*All Other Religions &#8211; 1%
*Non-Religious or Undetermined Religion &#8211; 9%
The three largest Protestant denominations in New York are: [[Baptist]] (8% of the total state population), [[Methodist]] (6%), [[Lutheran]] (3%).
At Chautauqua Lake in the southwestern portion of the state is the [[Chautauqua Institution]], co-founded by Methodist Rev. John Vincent and devoted to adult continuing education in a uplifting setting, as that ambiance was understood in the last half of the Nineteenth Century. The Institution, which still exists, offers to a predominately middle class and Mid-American clientele a very high standard of intellectual summer lectures, mixed with certain elements of folksy relgious camp meetings, such as outdoor recreation and musical events. While some aspects of this pedagogy may seem quaint today, the Institution helped assure that high intellectual achievement would be recognized as consistent with the value system of an emerging powerful Middle West, and was one of several ways that [[Upstate New York]] served between the Civil War and World War I as a transmitting intermediary between the standards of the East Coast and the interior heartland.
== Important cities and towns ==
[[Image:Nyc-manhattan-skyline.jpg|thumb|right|250px|New York City]]
[[Albany, New York|Albany]] is the state capital, and [[New York City, New York|New York City]] is by far the largest city. (''See also [[List of cities in New York]]'')
Its major cities and towns are:
<table><tr><td valign=top>
*[[New York, New York|New York City]]
*[[Buffalo, New York|Buffalo]]
*[[Rochester, Monroe County, New York|Rochester]]
*[[Yonkers, New York|Yonkers]]
*[[Syracuse, New York|Syracuse]]
*[[Albany, New York|Albany]]
*[[Niagara Falls, New York|Niagara Falls]]
</td><td valign=top>
*[[New Rochelle, New York|New Rochelle]]
*[[Mount Vernon, New York|Mount Vernon]]
*[[Schenectady, New York|Schenectady]]
*[[Utica, New York|Utica]]
*[[Binghamton, New York|Binghamton]]
*[[Ithaca, New York|Ithaca]]
*[[Troy, New York|Troy]]
== Education ==
=== Primary and Secondary Education ===
The New York State Board of Regents, the [[University of the State of New York]] and the State Education Department control all public primary and secondary education in the state.
=== Colleges and universities ===
Besides the many private colleges and universities in the state, New York, like many other states, operates its own system of institutions of higher learning known as the [[State University of New York System]] ([[SUNY]]). New York City operates the [[City University of New York]] ([[CUNY]]) in conjunction with the state.
*New York's public land grant (agriculture) and forestry colleges are at private schools: [[Cornell University|Cornell]] and [[Syracuse University|Syracuse]] Universities, respectively.
*For a complete list, see '''[[Colleges and Universities in the State of New York]]'''.
== Professional sports teams ==
<table><tr><td valign=top>
*[[National Football League]]
**[[Buffalo Bills]]
**The following teams play in [[East Rutherford, New Jersey|East Rutherford]], [[New Jersey]], but are usually considered New York teams
***[[New York Jets]]
***[[New York Giants]]
*[[New York Knicks]], [[National Basketball Association]]
*[[New York Liberty]], [[Women's National Basketball Association]]
*[[New York Power]], [[Women's United Soccer Association]]
*[[National Hockey League]]
**[[Buffalo Sabres]]
**[[New York Rangers]]
**[[New York Islanders]]
*[[Major League Baseball]]
**[[New York Mets]]
**[[New York Yankees]]
*[[Major League Lacrosse]]
**[[Long Island Lizards]]
**[[Rochester Rattlers]]
*[[National Lacrosse League]]
**[[Buffalo Bandits]]
**[[Rochester Knighthawks]]
</td><td valign=top>
*[[minor league baseball|Minor League Baseball teams]]
**[[Brooklyn Cyclones]]
**[[Staten Island Yankees]]
**[[Binghamton Mets]]
**[[Buffalo Bisons]]
**[[Jamestown Jammers]]
**[[Batavia Muckdogs]]
**[[Rochester Red Wings]]
**[[Auburn Doubledays]]
**[[Syracuse SkyChiefs]]
**[[Oneonta Tigers]]
**[[Tri-City Valley Cats]] ([[Troy, New York|Troy]])
**[[Hudson Valley Renegades]] ([[Wappingers Falls, New York|Wappingers Falls]])
*[[Major League Soccer]]
**[[MetroStars]] (Based in [[East Rutherford, New Jersey]])
*[[USL First Division]]
**[[Rochester Raging Rhinos]]
== Miscellanea ==
[[USS New York|USS ''New York'']] was named in honor of this state.<br>
The [[state animal]]: [[American Beaver|Beaver]] (''Castor canadensis'')<br>
The [[state bird]]: [[Eastern Bluebird]], (''Sialia sialis'').<br>
The [[state flower]]: [[Rose]].<br>
The [[state tree]]: [[Sugar maple]] (''Acer saccharum''). <br>
The state [[fruit]]: [[Apple]].<br>
The [[state gemstone]]: [[Garnet]].<br>
The [[List of U.S. state mottos|state motto]]: ''Excelsior'' (''ever higher'').<br>
== Ūtanƿearde bendas ==
* [ Rīces Nīwes-Eoforwīces Webbstede]
* [ Newspapers from New York]
* [ Landwaru of each county]
* [ Una Guía en Espanol de New York]
* [ US Census Bureau]
* [ Marine Commercial Fisheries of New York]
* [ Non-Fuel Mining in New York]
{{New York}}
[[Category:U.S. states]]
[[Category:New York| ]]
[[gl:Nova Iorque]]
[[ro:New York City]]
[[sl:New York (dr&#382;ava)]]