Toscead betweox fadungum "Wikipǣdia:Tutorial on Old English"

ly
Williamclayton, please read my message on your mōtung page
(The "wynn" rune is a Functionally Redundant, Easily Mistaken (for "p" or "thorn"), Purely Symbolic Enigma which Unnecessarily Raises the Learning Threshold for Old English.)
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ly (Williamclayton, please read my message on your mōtung page)
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:''For information on typing, see [[Help:Innung#Typing]]''
 
Gif þē is nīed, brūc þā stafas: ǣ æ ā ē ī ō ū ȳ þ ð ƿ oþþe Ǣ Æ Ā Ē Ī Ō Ū Ȳ Þ Ð Ƿ in þīnum gewritumgeƿritum.
 
When writing, use the early West Saxon spellings:
#Use ''ie'' instead of ''y'' (thus ''sierwungsierƿung'' instead of ''syrwungsyrƿung'', ''his'' instead of ''hys'', etc.)
#Use ''an'' instead of ''on'' (thus ''and'' instead of ''ond'', ''mann'' instead of ''monn'', etc.)
 
 
#Punctuate sentences as you normally would, i.e. a period for sentences, question mark for questions, and exclamation mark for imperatives/commands.
#For subordinate clauses, separate them from the main clause by a comma, e.g. "Ic cann secgan, þæt hē is mīn brōðor." Or, "Þes is sē mōnaþ, þe ƿē 'Hāligmōnaþ' hātton." This makes it a bit clearer to understand.
#In series, place commas after each word, including one before 'and' (mōdor, fæder, and sweostor).
 
Long-stemmed monosyllables: end with either a long vowel and one consonant or a short vowel and two consonants, e.g. hand, cniht, fōt, tōþ.
 
Short-stemmed disyllables: end with a short vowel, then one consonant, then another short vowel, then one consonant, e.g. metod, werodƿerod, hacod.
 
Long-stemmed disyllables: end with the same pattern as above (e.g. vowel, consonant cluster, vowel, consonant cluster) but ''must'' have at least one long vowel or one cluster of two consonants, e.g. engel, habban, windigƿindig, ēþel.
 
===Verbs===
The verb is conjugated as follows: ic (stem)-e, þu (stem)-est, hē (stem)-eþ/aþ, ƿē/gē/hīe (stem)-aþ
#Strong Verbs: ic -e, þu -(e)st, hē -(e)þ, ƿē/gē/hīe -aþ
 
--The () means the ''e'' of the ending can be syncopated if the ending is still understandable. Bisen: stendeþ hē, ne stent hē, ac nimþ hē, ne nimeþ hē. Understendest þu?
<td>ic</td>
<td>nerie</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>neriaþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>nerie</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>nerien</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>nerede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>neredon</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>nerede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>nereden</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>fremme</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>fremmaþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>fremme</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>fremmen</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>fremede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>fremedon</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>fremede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>fremeden</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>sette</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>settaþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>sette</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>setten</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>sette</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>setton</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>sette</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>setten</td>
</tr>
 
*Verbs ending in -rian and with doubled consonants drop the -i- or doubled consonant in the same positions: 2nd/3rd person singular, imperative singular, and throughout the past tense.
*Verbs like settan (ātreddan, cnyttan, hreddan, hwettanhƿettan, lettan, spryttan, lecgan) typically have the above declension. Lecgan has (legde, geleged). You may find past forms as "setede."
 
=====Type 1b=====
Verbs with stems ending in more than one consonant (not a doubled consonant) or with a long vowel and one consonant.
Infinitive Forms: dēman, hyngran, drencan, gierwangierƿan, etc.
#Note how the infinitive ending is always -an.
 
<td>ic</td>
<td>dēme</td>
<td> ƿē</td>
<td>dēmaþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>dēme</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>dēmen</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>dēmde</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>dēmdon</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>dēmde</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>dēmden</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>drence</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>drencaþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>drence</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>drencen</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>drencte</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>drencton</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>drencte</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>drencten</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>hyngre</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>hyngraþ</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>hyngre</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>hyngren</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>hyngrede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>hyngredon</td>
</tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>hyngrede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>hyngreden</td>
</tr>
 
 
And one last type, gierwangierƿan verbs (ending in -wanƿan):
 
<table border="0" cellspacing="15">
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Present Indicative: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>gierwegierƿe</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>gierwaþgierƿaþ</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>gierest</td>
<td>gē</td>
<td>gierwaþgierƿaþ</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>giereþ</td>
<td>hīe</td>
<td>gierwaþgierƿaþ</td>
</tr>
</table>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Present Subjunctive: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>gierwegierƿe</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>gierwengierƿen</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>þu</td>
<td>gierwegierƿe</td>
<td>gē</td>
<td>gierwengierƿen</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>hē, hēo, hit</td>
<td>gierwegierƿe</td>
<td>hīe</td>
<td>gierwengierƿen</td>
</tr>
</table>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Past Indicative: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>gierede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>gieredon</td>
</tr>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Past Subjunctive: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>ic</td>
<td>gierede</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
<td>giereden</td>
</tr>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Imperative: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>giere</td>
<td>(gē)</td>
<td>gierwaþgierƿaþ</td>
</tr>
</table>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Weak Verb 1b Participles: gierwangierƿan'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td></td>
<td>gierwendegierƿende</td>
<td>gegierwedgegierƿed, gegiered</td>
</tr>
</table>
=====Notes: Weak Verb 1b=====
*See notes on Weak Verb 1a for formation of the different forms of the verb.
*The most 'regular' 1b verbs are those like dēman (long vowel, 1 consonant) and hyngran (short vowel, multiple consonants), in that they don't have much variation in formation like drencan and gierwangierƿan verbs.
*Verbs having a long vowel and one consonant, like '''dēman''', don't generally have the full -est, -eþ endings. Thus, the imperative is simply the þu form without -st (dēm!, not dēme!).
*Verbs like dēman include verbs ending in -rn, -ng, -rg, -lg, wiernanƿiernan (wierndeƿiernde, gewiernedgeƿierned), lengan (lengde, gelenged), byrgan (byrgde, gebyrged), and fylgan (fylgde, gefylged). It also includes contracted verbs like hēan (hēade, gehēad), rȳn, tȳn, þēon, þȳn.
*Verbs like drencan include those ending in -nc, -sc, -p, -sp, -t, -rp. They add -te in the past tense (ācwencteācƿencte, ādwæscteādƿæscte, etc.).
*Verbs like hyngran, with a short vowel and multiple consonants, are more 'regular' than other 1b verbs. Their past tense is always -ede, and the past participle is always ge-(stem)-ed (bīecnede, þrysmede, symblede, ræfnede).
*Verbs like gierwangierƿan, ending in -wanƿan, drop the -wƿ- in the same places as the -i- in 1a verbs (smierwansmierƿan -> smierest, nierwannierƿan -> niereþ). Verbs like getrīewangetrīeƿan, lǣwanlǣƿan, forslǣwanforslǣƿan, hlēowanhlēoƿan (with a long vowel/diphthong) kept the -wƿ- in all forms, however.
 
===Weak Verb 2===