Toscead betweox fadungum "Wikipǣdia:Tutorial on Old English"

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Ic undyde sceawunge 195628 be Williamclayton (Mōtung)
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==Hū man sceolde wrītanƿrītan==
:''For information on typing, see [[Help:Innung#Typing]]''
 
 
===Pronouns===
In dæftunge: nemniendlic, āgniendlic, forgifendlic, wregendlicƿregendlic
 
<table border="0" cellspacing="15">
<td>Nom.</td>
<td>ic</td>
<td>witƿit</td>
<td>ƿē</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>þīn</td>
<td>incer</td>
<td>ēowerēoƿer</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>þē</td>
<td>inc</td>
<td>ēowēoƿ</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>þec</td>
<td>incit</td>
<td>ēowicēoƿic</td>
</tr>
</table>
<tr>
<td>Nom.</td>
<td>hwāhƿā</td>
<td>hwæthƿæt</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Gen.</td>
<td>hwæshƿæs</td>
<td>hwæshƿæs</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Dat.</td>
<td>hwǣmhƿǣm</td>
<td>hwǣmhƿǣm</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Inst.</td>
<td>hwȳhƿȳ/hwīhƿī</td>
<td>hwȳhƿȳ/hwīhƿī</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Acc.</td>
<td>hwonehƿone</td>
<td>hwæthƿæt</td>
</tr>
</table>
</table>
 
Notice how the Interrogative pronouns look like the pronouns ''hē'' and ''hit'' (hwǣhƿǣ'''m''' and hi'''m''', hwohƿo'''ne''' and hi'''ne''', hwæhƿæ'''t''' and hi'''t''', hwæhƿæ'''s''' and hi'''s'''). If you compare to the Definite Article, you'll see the same similarities, mostly a difference of þ-/hwhƿ- (þ'''one''' and hwhƿ'''one''', þ'''ǣm''' and hwhƿ'''ǣm''', þ'''ȳ''' and hwhƿ'''ȳ''', þ'''æt''' and hwhƿ'''æt''', þ'''æs''' and hwhƿ'''æs''').
 
====Declension====
The genitive pronoun functions as an adjective. As such, it declines to agree with the case, gender, and number of the noun which it describes. The pronouns mīn, þīn, sīn, ūser, ēowerēoƿer, uncer, incer decline, whereas his, hire, and hira '''do not'''. The following table illustrates the declensions of these pronouns, which is exactly like the adjective ''blind''.
 
<table border="0" cellspacing="15">
</table>
 
Nouns like '''dæg''' include: pæþ, stæf, hwælhƿæl, etc. One noun, mǣg, has both māgas and mǣgas for plural.
 
Nouns like mearh are also a litle different from stān. They drop the -h before endings, and lengthen the vowel.
</table>
 
Nouns like '''mearh''' include: ealh, eolh, fearh, healh, sealh, seolh, wealhƿealh, etc. The word scōh simply adds endings, since it already has a long vowel:
 
<table border="0" cellspacing="15">
====Case Usage====
=====General Notes=====
A noun's case tells what it is doing in a sentence. And when there is an appositive phrase, it matches the noun to which it refers. E.g., "I gave it to John, the new president - Ic geaf hit Iohanne, þǣm nīwannīƿan foresittende." John and "the new president" are both in the dative case.
 
=====Nominative=====
Subject of a sentence, or the object of copula verbs (bēon, wesanƿesan, weorðanƿeorðan). This is the dictionary form of a noun.
 
=====Genitive=====
 
=====Accusative=====
Direct Object of a sentence, and the object of some prepositions (wiþƿiþ, etc.). It is uninflected in masculine/neuter nouns, but has an -e ending with most feminine nouns.
 
It is also used to show duration of length or time, e.g. "I ran a mile," "I waited an hour," "I'll be running the whole length of the school," etc.
=====Variations in Declension=====
#Adjectives like glæd, have æ followed by one consonant, and change the æ to a with endings beginning in a vowel (-es, -u, etc.). Also declined like glæd are all adjectives ending in -lic and -sum.
#Adjectives like blind, have a short vowel followed by two consonants (swiftsƿift, scearp), or a long vowel followed by one consonant (wācƿāc, frōd). Also declined like blind are all adjectives ending in -cund, -feald, -fæst, and -lēas. The possessives mīn, þīn, sīn, ūser, uncer, ēowerēoƿer, incer are declined like blind also.
#Adjectives like hēah, ending in -h, drop the -h before any ending beginning in a vowel, and drop that vowel. Thus, where glæd has gladu, glades, hēah will have hēa, hēas.
 
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Strong Adjective Singular Declension: wildeƿilde'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td>Nom.</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wilduƿildu</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Gen.</td>
<td>wildesƿildes</td>
<td>wildesƿildes</td>
<td>wildreƿildre</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Dat.</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildreƿildre</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Inst.</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wildreƿildre</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Acc.</td>
<td>wildneƿildne</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
</tr>
</table>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" width="100%">
<tr>
<th style="background:#afefef;" colspan="5">'''Strong Plural Adjective Declension: wildeƿilde'''</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td>Nom.</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wilduƿildu</td>
<td>wildaƿilda</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Gen.</td>
<td>wildraƿildra</td>
<td>wildraƿildra</td>
<td>wildraƿildra</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Dat.</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Inst.</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
<td>wildumƿildum</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Acc.</td>
<td>wildeƿilde</td>
<td>wilduƿildu</td>
<td>wildaƿilda</td>
</tr>
</table>
#Adjectives like manig, with a short stem (one short vowel and one consonant, plus an ending with one short vowel and one consonant, -ig, -od, -en, -or, -ol, -oþ, -er), simply add the endings to the adjective, but never add the -u ending.
#Adjectives like hālig, with a long stem (one short vowel and two consonants, or a long vowel with one consonant, plus an ending with one short vowel and one consonant, -ig, -od, -en, -or, -ol, -oþ, -er), will syncopate the second stem vowel (hālges, ēacne, hǣðna) in endings beginning with vowels. These adjectives will always add the -u ending (but won't syncopate in that case).
#Adjectives ending in -e, such as wildeƿilde, will always have the ''u''-ending in the feminine singular and neuter plural. They simply drop the -e, and add endings as necessary.
 
====U-Ending and Weak Adjectives====
<tr>
<td>Gen.</td>
<td>gearwesgearƿes</td>
<td>gearwesgearƿes</td>
<td>gearore</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Dat.</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearore</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Inst.</td>
<td>gearwegearƿe</td>
<td>gearwegearƿe</td>
<td>gearore</td>
</tr>
<td>gearone</td>
<td>gearu</td>
<td>gearwegearƿe</td>
</tr>
</table>
<tr>
<td>Nom.</td>
<td>gearwegearƿe</td>
<td>gearu</td>
<td>gearwagearƿa</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<tr>
<td>Dat.</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Inst.</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
<td>gearwumgearƿum</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Acc.</td>
<td>gearwegearƿe</td>
<td>gearu</td>
<td>gearwagearƿa</td>
</tr>
</table>
</table>
=====Variations in Declension=====
#Adjectives ending in -u change it to -o- before -re, -ra, -ne. The -u changes to -wƿ- before endings beginning with a vowel.
#Adjectives occur in the weak declension after se, sēo, þæt, þes, þēos, þis, mīn, þīn, sīn, etc.
#Adjectives like glæd will have -a- throughout the weak declension.