חָם''', [[Regollic Hebrēisc]] ''' Ḥam''', [[Tiberisc Hebrēisc]] ''' Ḥām''', ''' Ḫām''', [[Ge'ez sprǣc|Ge'ez]] '''Kam'''), be þǣre [[Cynnreccnessa Cnēorisbōce]], wæs sunu [[Noe]]s and se fæder [[Chus]]es, [[Mizraim]]es, [[Phut]]es, and [[Chanan]]es. [[David Rohl]] gecnǣwþ þās þēode swā þā [[Pēne]] þæs [[Land Puntes|Punt]].
== Ham in þǣre Biblioþēcan ==
Þēawlīce is gecēpt þæt Cham wæs ān þāra [[suna Noes]], þe tēah sūþwest intō [[Affrica]] and dǣlas þæs nēan [[Middel Ēast|Middlan Ēastes]], and wæs se forefæder þāra þēoda þǣr.
Sēo [[Biblioþēce]] belimpþ tō [[Egypte|Egyptan]] swā "þæt land Chames" in (''[[Saltere]]'' 78:51; 105:23,27; 106:22; 1Ch 4:40). Þǣt Hebrēisce word for Egyptan wæs [[Mizraim]] (gewēne bōclīce mǣnþ ''[[Ūfeweard and Neoðeweard Egypte|þā tū land]]''), and wæs se nama ānes suna Chames. Þæt Egiptisce word for Egyptan wæs ''[[Chem|Khem]]'', þe fægerlīce wæs se fruma þæs naman ''Cham'', oþþe þurh [[sōnhwierfun]]e betwēonan sprǣcum. Þā naman Chames ōðra cildra efenlǣcaþ þā dǣlas wiþinnan Egyptan rīcscunge - [[Kush]], [[Chanan]], and [[Phut]].
Be ''Cnēorisbēc'' 9:
20–25, ongann Noe tō tilienne [[wīnberie|wīnberian]] æfter þǣm [[drencflōd (saga)|flōde]], and druncnode sume dæge. Þā hwīle þe hē druncen wæs, læg hē þā limnacod in his [[teld]]e. Cham seah his fæder limnacodne, and cȳþde his brōðrum [[Sem]]e and [[Iafeth]]e þǣrymbe. Sem and Iafeth ēodon in þæt teld mid hira andwlītan in bewrigenum, and hine þeahton. Hwonne Noe wōc, wiste hē hwæt ''him belamp'', and wiergde Chanan, sunu Chames, tō bēone þā þēowas Semes and Iafethes.[http://bible.cc/genesis/9-25.htm]
The extent of the significance of this passage is debated, but the simplest interpretation considers uncovering the [[nakedness]] of his father to be a great [[taboo]], and the inaction of Ham (who chose instead to publicize and perhaps make light of the situation) to be what led Noah to deem Ham's judgement inferior to that of his more modest brothers. The statement by Noah "Cursed be Canaan" is thus interpreted by some as presaging a fatefully undesirable trait of ''immodesty'' that destined Ham's heir Canaan to be held low in society.
In the minimalist view, the early tribal name either became seen by later generations as the name of the "old ones", and thus gradually evolved into that of a god, or else was deliberately transformed into the name of a god, demi-god or hero, for the purpose of making it easier to tell the tale of a tribe representatively. However, minimalists generally prefer to avoid giving any credence to accounts of tribes being named for eponymous ancestors.
Counter arguments are often put forward that the connection is only between the [[Egyptian language|Egyptian]] word and the typical [[Hebrew phonology|''modern'' pronunciation]] of Hebrew
ח as / χ/ ("kh") rather than / ḥ/ (as was the case with [[Biblical Hebrew language|biblical Hebrew]], and suggest that the appearance is lessened with the original Hebrew חם '' Ḥam'' considered as Northwest [[Semitic languages|Semitic]] / ḥ/ (such as in Hebrew, [[Phoenician language|Phoenician]], and [[Syriac language|Syriac]]). Further, ''Kam'', the version of the name in [[Ge'ez language|Ge'ez]] —a South Semitic language—is seemingly borrowed from Biblical Hebrew ''via'' the [[Hebrew Bible]] and perhaps does not reflect a native derivation of the word. However, the conversion between ''Khem'' and ''Ham'' corresponds with the widely occurring [[phonology|phonological]] [[sound change]] of ''Kh'' into ''X'', the [[voiceless velar fricative]] (the ''ch'' in ''[[loch]]'' rather than the ''X'' in ''[[exam]]''), that often happens over time, or during transcription from one language into another (e.g. ''[[Xerxes]]'' is the ancient Greek attempt at spelling the name '' Khshayārsha'').
In the [[19th century]], there was an erroneous [[Transcription (linguistics)|transcription]] of the Egyptian for ''[[Min (god)|Min]]'' as ''
ḫm'' ("khem"), purely by coincidence. Since this ''Khem'' was worshipped most significantly in [[Akhmim]], the separate identity of ''Khem'' was reinforced, ''Akhmim'' being understood as simply a corruption of ''Khem''. However, ''Akhmim'' is a corruption of '' ḫm-mnw'', meaning ''Shrine of Min'', via the [[demotic]] form '' šmn''. The existence of a god named ''Khem'' was later understood as a faulty reading, but unfortunately it had already been enshrined in books written by [[E. A. Wallis Budge]] —now out of [[copyright]] and widely reprinted. Thus this error still finds a home among some Egyptologists, who often use it to identify Ham with the god Khem or Chem, in addition to the identification of Ham by the Greeks as the [[Titan (mythology)|Titan]] [[Cronos]]. (''See the article'' '''[[Min (god)]]''' ''for more details.'')
Nethertheless, since Khem (meaning black) was normally used to described the fertile soils by the Nile, it was sometimes used as an epithet for Min, as the god of fertility. Since Khem was also an Egyptian name for Egypt (precisely because it described the soil of the Nile valley), there is also an association with Ham, who represented the forefather of the north-east African nations including Egypt. Ham could plausibly be a name derived from Khem (Egypt), or vice versa, via sound change, due to the change in language between Egyptian and Hebrew, corresponding to the well known phonological change of /k/ into /kh/ into /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) into /h/.