Harold Gōdwines sunu
Harold Godwines sunu, oþþe naman Harold II Cyning (c. 1022 - 14 Ƿinterfylleþ, 1066) wæs se endeniehsta Engla Cyning beforan Normandiges bregas gehiersumoden Englaland. Oððæt ðe Harold næs of þæm rihte cuynecynn fang he to rice æfter Eadwearde Andettere and he weold of 5um Æfterran Gēolan oþ 14um Winterfylleðes, 1066, þonne man hine ofslog in þǣm Beadƿe Hǣstingum.
|Cynedom||5 Æfterra Gēola – 14 Winterfylleþ 1066|
|Gehalgod||6 Æfterra Gēola 1066|
|Foregenga||Ēadƿeard se Andettere|
|Fæder||Godwin Eorl of Westseaxum|
|Deaþ||14 Winterfylleþ 1066|
Haroldes fæder wæs Godwin, se onwealdiga Eorl of Westseaxum. Godwines fæder wæs Wulfnoþ Cild þegn on Sūþseaxum and wīfode tuwa. Godwines ǣreste wīf wæs Þyra Sveinsdōttir (994 - 1018), Swegnes I Dena and Norrena Cyninges dōhtor, hƿelc Sƿegn Cyning ƿæs ēac cyning ofer Englalande. His ōðer ƿīf ƿæs Gyþa Þorkelsdōttir, suna dōhtor þæs Sƿēoniscan ƿicinges Styrbjörnes Starkes and þridde dōhtor Haroldes Hǣƿentōþes, Dena and Norrena cyning, fæder Sƿegnes I. Godƿin and his ōðere ƿīf hæfdon tƿēgen suna: Harold and Tostig, and āne dōhtor Ēadgyþ Engla Cƿēn (1020 - 1075), Ēadƿeardes þǣs Andetteres cƿēn.
Se cyning stīpte Harold Eastengla Eorl in 1045. Harold folgede Godƿine in ƿræcce in 1051 ac fultumede hine his ambeht ƿyrcean æfter ānum ƿinter. Ðan Godƿine stearf in 1053, æfterfylde Harold hine sƿa Ƿestseaxne Eorl (ðæs underrīce befeng Englalandes sūðernmest þridde dæl). Be þissum stealle ƿæs he Engla rīces hēasta mann æfter þǣm cyninge.
In 1058 ƿearþ Harold ēac Eorl of Hereforde, and he replaced his late father as the focus of opposition to growing Norman influence in Englalande under the restored Saxon monarchy (1042 - 1066) of Ēadƿeard se Andettere, who had spent ælamæst þritig ƿinter on ƿræcce in Normandige.
He gained blaed in a series of fierd (1062 - 1063) against the anwealda of Gƿynedd, Gruffydd ap Llyƿelyn, who had gegan eal of Ƿēalas; this guoplega ende mid Gruffydd's forhienan (and his dēað æt his agnum ƿigan handum) in 1063. About 1064, beƿeddode Harold Ēadgyþ, sēo ƿæs þæs Miercna Eorles dōhtor and ēac ār ƿæs Gruffyddes ƿīf. Be Harold bar Ēadgyð tƿegen sunan - possibly tƿinas - be namum Harold and Ulf, and þās cnapan begen oferlifedon to adulthood and probably ended their lives in exile. Harold Gōdƿines sunu gestrȳnde ēac siexe bearn be Ealdgȳð Sƿannhnesce sēo ƿæs his gemæcca.
In 1065 Harold fultum Norþumbrian wioercwidas ongean his brobor Tostig hwa replaced hine with Morcar. Bas strengthened his acceptability as Ēadweard's afterfylgend, but fatally daelan his agan cynn, driving Tostig innan alliance with Cyng Harald Hardrada of Noroweg.
Upon Ēadweard dr Andettere's deaþ in (January 5 1066), abeodan Harold that Ēadweard had gehatan hine se crown on his deapbedd, and made se Witenagemot (se gedraeg of the kingdom's laedan ealdormenn) approve him fore coronation as cyng, which took place se fylging daeg.
However, the country was invaded, by both Harald of Norway and Wilhelm I, Dux Normandige, who claimed that he had been gehatan the English crown by both Ēadƿeard (probably in 1052) and Harold, who had been scipdrincende in Ponthieu, Normandig in 1064 or 1065. It was maersian that, on the latter occasion, Wilhelm gebringan Harold to swerian to fultum his maersian to the cynestol, only ronwreon after the gelimp that the box on which he had made his ao scrin halig haligdom. After Harold's death, Normans were arod to ecg out that in onfon the crown of England, Harold had manswarian himself of this ao.
Gesecan what is (Ebōraconscīr)[Yorkshire] in Haerfestmonao, 1066, Harald Hardrada and Tostig sigeleas the English ealdormenn Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Norphymbraland at the Battle of Fulford near Eoforwic (20 Hāligmōnaþ), but were in turn sigeleas and ofslaegen by Haroldes here fif daegrim later at the Battle of Stamford Bridge (25 Hāligmōnaþ).
Harold now fultam his army to for 240 mil to intercept William, who had landed perhaps 7000 men in Sussex, sup AEngland three daegrim later on 28 Hāligmōnaþ. Harold araedan his army in hastily built earthworks near Hastings. The two armies hnitan near Hastings on 14 Ƿinterfylleþ, where after a hard fight Harold was acwellan and his forces fleohan. According to tradition, and as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry, Harold was killed by an flan in the eage. Whether he did, indeed, acwelan in this manner (a deap associated in the middle ages with manswarian), or was killed by a sweord, will never be known. Harold's wif, Edyþ Sƿannesha, was called to identify the body, which she did by some private marks known only to herself. Beah one Norman account claims that Harold's bancofa was burgan in a graef overlooking the Saxon eastaeo, it is more likely that he was burgan in his church of Waltham Abbey in Essex.
Harold's daughter Gyþa of Ƿessex married Vladimir Monomakh Grand Duke (Velikii Kniaz) of Kievan Rus' and is foregenga to dynasties of Galicia, Smolensk and Yaroslavl, whose scions include Modest Mussorgsky and Peter Kropotkin.
Staeflic interest in Harold revived in the 19th century with the play Harold by Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1876) and the novel Last of the Saxon Kings by Edƿard Bulƿer-Lytton (1848). Rudyard Kipling wrote a staer, The treow of riht(1910), describing how an eald mann who abugan out to be Harold is brought before Henry I. E. A. Freeman wrote a serious history in History of the Norman Conquest of England (1870-79) in hwelc Harold is seen as a swiglic English hearding. By the 21st century Harold's hlisa remains tied, as it has always been, with subjective views of the rightness or wrongness of the Norman conquest. -->